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Find Speyer Girls Near You Using the Technology. Quick search I am man woman. Seeking for man woman. The construction, spanning several decades, brought many craftsmen, merchants and artists.

Conrad invited experienced master-builders, such as Regimbald of Dillingen from St. Gallen, Bishop Benno II of Osnabrück and Bishop Otto of Bamberg.

The crypt was consecrated in , the main altar in and the cathedral in It was the largest church of its time and, in its monumentality and significance, symbolized imperial power and Christianity.

It became the primary church and mausoleum of the Salian dynasty and the burial place of eight German emperors and kings. With the Abbey of Cluny in ruins, the Speyer Cathedral remains the largest Romanesque church to this very day.

It had become a custom in Carolingian times that bishops expanded their residences in order to host kings or emperors on tour.

The palace was 74 metres long, 16 metres wide and had three floors with heights of 6 metres each. It had its own chapel and was linked to the northeastern corner of the cathedral.

The dimensions and elaborate architectural design were exceptional for profane buildings in the Salian era. Altogether, cathedral and additions presented a representative assembly of stately buildings with nothing comparable in the Salian empire.

The extensive construction works drew many people to Speyer and expansions of the town became necessary. A new layout of streets developed that still exists today: three streets fanning out from the cathedral to the northwest, to the west and to the southwest.

Although the street has partially been narrowed, the original width is still visible on both ends, most notably between the cathedral and Alte Münz.

The first expansion of the town was by about 50 ha and the walls were completed around To the north, just east of today's train station, the suburb of Altspeyer including the Jewish quarter also had been walled.

Under the reign of the Salians three abbeys were established as endowments see Stift : St. John's later St. Guido on the Weidenberg, a minor elevation between Speyer and the suburb of Altspeyer, St.

Germain on the Germansberg, another small elevation outside of the town walls to the south and All-Saints within the city walls in the southern part of the town.

Conrad II died 4 June and was laid to rest in the cathedral which was still under construction. At the consecration of the main altar in , he donated the evangelistary gospel book known as the Speyer Gospels today in Madrid , in which it says "Spira fit insignis Heinrici munere regis Speyer is awarded and elevated by the beneficial work of King Henry ".

They were ceremoniously interred in the new abbey of St. John's, which later became the Stift of St. The cathedral was also presented with the skull of pope Stephanus, one of its two patron saints.

Along with Goslar and Regensburg , Speyer became one of Henry's favorite residences in the empire. After his death he was buried on 28 October with great ceremony in the presence of Pope Victor II in the yet unfinished cathedral next to his father.

Work on the cathedral was continued by his widow, Agnes of Poitou and later by his son, Henry IV. Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos — gave the cathedral a valuable antipendium appendage which covers the entire front of the altar in and Empress Beatrix died donated a gold, silver and ivory reliquary cupboard.

The political relations between the Speyer and the empire intensified and Henry IV confirmed the charter of privileges immunity charter which had been granted to Speyer by his father.

The Speyer bishops Heinrich I. It was Bishop Huzmann who handed Pope Gregory VII the letter of deposition from Henry IV in Huzman also accompanied Henry IV in December that same year on his voyage from Speyer to Canossa and Bishop Bruno in his capacity of imperial chancellor who negotiated the Concordat of Worms with Pope Callixtus II in Huzman remained excommunicated for life because of his partisanship for the emperor.

In , Henry VI commissioned considerable changes to the cathedral Speyer II bringing another spurt in growth for the town.

Until the eastern sections of the building were demolished leaving only the lower floors and the crypt of Speyer I intact.

The nave was elevated by five metres and the flat wooden ceiling replaced with a groin vault of square bays at an elevation of 33 metres representing one of the outstanding achievements of Romanesque architecture.

The emperor not only laid claim to secular but also to ecclesiastical power and with the magnificence and splendour of this cathedral he underlined this bold demand.

The purpose of the building, already a strong motive for Conrad, was the emperor's "claim to a representative imperial Roman architecture" in light of the continuing struggle with Pope Gregory VII.

Thus, the Speyer Cathedral is also seen as a symbol of the Investiture Controversy. Because of his excommunication, he was first put to rest in the unconsecrated Afra chapel of the cathedral.

It was only in , when Henry IV's excommunication was revoked that his son, Henry V, had the body moved into the cathedral alongside his predecessors.

In the beginning of the following century, another expansion of the town became necessary. Between and , the staple market at the Speyerbach today Fishmarket Square was included within the city walls.

Bartholomew, St. Jacob and St. Peter is an indication of a growing population. As of the end of the 11th century, Spira became the only name used for the town.

Conrad II and his predecessors furnished the cathedral chapter with estates and reeve rights with which it had a successful and strong economical base.

These assets included the area of Bruchsal with Lusshard Forest and possessions scattered along the upper Neckar River, in the northern Black Forest , in modern-day Palatine and in the Kraichgau district as well as farther away in the Hunsrück Mountains, the Nahe Hills and the Hessian Mountains.

By and by, Henry IV added possessions in the Wetterau and Nahegau districts, in the valley of the river Rems , in Saxony and with the counties of Lutramsforst southern Palatine Forest and Forchheim.

Virtually the whole district of Speyergau was gradually transferred into the hands of the church. In the years to come, Speyer developed an autonomous municipal law.

Speyer's Rhine harbour at mouth of the Speyerbach is first mentioned in Along the upper Rhine, the staple market of Speyer was third in size and Speyer was the largest trading centre for wine.

Other commodities were cloth, spices, grains, fruit, grindstones, pottery and arms. Bishop Huzmann's successor in was a nephew and confidant of Henry IV, John Count in Kraichgau.

During his tenure his bishopric received additional estates in the area of Rastatt. Afra adjoining the cathedral.

His son, Henry V had him ceremoniously transferred into the royal chancel of the cathedral proper on August 14, In , the first recorded Jewish community emerged in Speyer at the instigation of the Bishop Rüdiger Huzmann.

It is quite possible that Jews already settled in Speyer in pre-Christian times. The bishop invited Jews to move to Speyer and settled them in the former suburb of Altspeyer which he had surrounded by a wall for their protection.

Along with this invitation the bishop granted the Jews rights and privileges which went well beyond contemporary practice.

These rights were confirmed by Henry IV in and became an example for Jews' privileges in many cities of the empire.

A Jewish quarter soon also developed next to the bishops' district near the cathedral. Its centre, the Jews' Court Judenhof , contained a men's and a women's synagogue and the mikveh.

The ruins of the Speyer Synagogue are the oldest visible remnants of such a building in central Europe. The mikveh , first mentioned in , has remained almost unchanged to this day and is still supplied by fresh groundwater.

For two centuries the Speyer Jewish community was among the most important of the Empire and, in spite of pogroms, persecution and expulsion, had considerable influence on Ashkenazi culture and the spiritual and cultural life of the town.

Nevertheless, anti-Semitism and persecution was no less virulent in Speyer than in other places and with one notable exception the Jewish community shared the fate of most others.

On August 14, , the day of his father's funeral in the Speyer cathedral, Henry V granted the city extraordinary privileges.

Speyer became the first city in the Holy Roman Empire in which its citizens were granted personal freedoms as laid out in the Great Freedom Charter.

For Speyer this marked a big step in the development of becoming a free imperial city. The inscription was later lost when the cathedral was damaged.

Among other things, the charter freed the citizens of Speyer from the oppressive inheritance tax, from duties and the fees and tolls of the city and it granted the right to be heard when coins were to be devaluated.

The charter became a precondition for a free citizenry with a unified legal status, e. It was an example for similar rights later granted to other cities in the empire and also highlighted the emperor's interest in strengthening the citizenry as a counterweight against the power of the bishops.

In , the Speyer Bishop Bruno of Saarbrücken — sided with the princes who opposed Henry V in the Investiture Controversy under the leadership of Archbishop Adalbert I of Mainz.

The city of Speyer remaining loyal to Henry V chased the bishop out of town. This was the first recorded political action of the Speyer citizenry.

As imperial chancellor of Henry V the bishop negotiated the Concordat of Worms with pope Calixtus II in , ending the Investiture Controversy.

Henry, having come to terms with the pope, died without children in Utrecht and was the last Salian emperor to be interred in the Speyer cathedral.

As with Henry IV, Speyer had been one of his favourite residences. In the ensuing struggle for the royal crown the Welf candidate sponsored by the archbishop of Mainz, Lothar III succeeded to the throne on 13 September Speyer again supported the rival Staufer king, later Conrad III, and again, chased a bishop, this time Siegfried II of Wolfsölden — , out of town for his support of the Welf.

The Staufers took refuge in Speyer. In the Imperial Chronicle it says that they expressed their gratitude by making it their principal town.

In King Lothar and Archbishop Adalbert put Speyer, which by then must have been totally surrounded by walls, under siege and it had to surrender short of starvation.

Lothar III stayed in Speyer twice for longer periods of time in and After his death in the Staufer Conrad III. He continued the practice of the Salians in keeping a common residence with the bishops in Speyer and the cathedral school as an imperial chancellery.

The emperor also continued to rely on the support of the Speyer bishops holding most important offices of the empire. The Christmas sermons of Bernard of Clairvaux in the Speyer cathedral induced Conrad III, who was in town for the imperial diet of , to participate in the Second Crusade.

Two brass plates in the cathedral commemorate this event. In , Conrad's nephew, Frederick I confirmed and expanded the privileges for Speyer granted in The script is the oldest document in the Speyer city archives.

Unlike the people of Speyer, the inhabitants of the prince-bishopric outside the city walls remained serfs of the bishop under the old inheritance law well into modern history.

Frederick had planned to be interred in the cathedral after his death but never returned from the Third Crusade.

Therefore, his second wife Beatrice of Burgundy and his little daughter Agnes were put to rest in the cathedral in The crown passed to Frederick's son Henry VI whose reign was marked by the dispute with the church, opposing princes and by the secession of Sicily.

In December , Richard I of England was taken captive near Vienna on his return from the Third Crusade and handed over to Henry IV in Speyer on March 28, who imprisoned him in Trifels Castle for almost a year until England paid a royal ransom of , marks 65, pounds of silver.

Presumably it was in this time, that Henry IV granted the town the liberty to elect a council of twelve citizens from their midst.

The original document is lost but the privilege was confirmed in January by Philip of Swabia in a contract with the city. Thus, with the apparent approval of the bishop, Philip legitimatized the city council charter, which also made its way in Lübeck , Utrecht and Strasbourg around the turn of the century.

It is especially remarkable, that the twelve councilors were neither appointed by the bishop nor were they required to swear an oath on him. Henry VI died in Messina and was interred in the Cathedral of Palermo.

Henry's three-year-old son was too young to take the crown, and a struggle between Staufers and Welfs for the throne ensued.

In the treaty of mentioned above, Speyer again sided with the Staufers and agreed to mutual aid with Henry's youngest brother, Philip of Swabia. His supporters crowned him that same year, while Otto IV of Brunswick was crowned as the candidate of the Welfs.

In the spring of , the princes supporting the Staufers assembled in Speyer to affirm Philipp's right to the crown.

In a note of protest to the pope they denounced his right to participate in the election of the German king, not to mention to declare it legitimate.

They demanded that the Pope no longer infringe on the imperial rights in Italy. The princes threatened to come to Rome in order to enforce Philipp's coronation as emperor.

Unimpressed, Pope Innocent III confirmed Otto's coronation in after Otto promised him territories in Italy Oath of Neuss.

That same year, Otto besieged Speyer without success, where his opponent Philip sojourned. In , Philip held a diet in Speyer and, after he beat Otto in battle in , the tide in the power struggle turned in his favour.

Yet, in , in the presence of Speyer Bishop Conrad III of Scharfenberg, Philip was killed in Bamberg by the Count Palatine of Bavaria.

Otto IV, becoming king after all, tried to make amends with Speyer by confirming the privileges of , but in vain. In the Treaty of Speyer of 22 March he renewed his promise to the pope Oath of Neuss about the territories in Italy which he never held.

As of , important functions of the city were taken by citizens and from that time on the council used its own seal. With these privileges, Speyer continued to lead the way in the empire.

The role of the city council consolidated during the 13th century and a city court evolved. In , at a diet in Speyer, Otto IV's successor and Henry IV's son, Frederick II had his uncle, Philipp of Swabia, ceremoniously interred in the cathedral.

Under his reign, the cathedral school evolved into the diplomat school of the empire. The Speyer Bishop Conrad III of Scharfenberg , Imperial Chancellor to , accompanied Frederick in to the crowning ceremony in Rome.

That same year, a hospital run by the Teutonic Order is documented in Speyer. In , the Franciscan Cesarius of Speyer began his mission in Germany.

The 13th century in Speyer was characterised by the struggle for power in the city. In the beginning there were more and more signs that the city council increasingly acted independently and that its constitution took on institutional traits.

In , the city council was referred to as universitas consiliariorum and in as consiliarii Spirensis cum universo eorum collegio. In and , for the first time, it signed contracts in its own name, e.

Eventually, legal jurisdiction cognisance passed over from the church to the city. During the throne quarrel of Frederick II, the cities were encouraged to more independence.

In the mid-twenties of the 13th century, Speyer joined a federation of cities with Mainz, Worms, Bingen, Frankfurt, Gelnhausen and Friedberg.

Yet, mainly at the instigation of the church, this federation was prohibited at the diet of the new imperial regent , Louis I, Duke of Bavaria in November It concerned violations against peace and order in the city.

In that context, for the first time, two mayors of Speyer are mentioned. In , the city council appears as independently acting institution, referring to itself as Consules et universi cives Spirenses.

In the 13th century a number of monasteries settled in Speyer. In the Order of the Holy Sepulchre took over the monastery of the Augustinian nuns which was located in the suburb of Altspeyer.

Cistercians established a monastery on the site of today's Wittelsbacher Hof on Ludwigstrasse in It was a branch of the renowned Eusserthal Abbey in the Palatine Forest.

In , Magdalen nuns from St. Leon settled in Speyer and later requested to be accepted into the Dominican Order. Their monastery St. Magdalen is the oldest still in existence in Speyer today.

In the Dominicans came to Speyer; their church was today's Ludwigskirche in Korngasse. Augustinians built a monastery at today's Willi-Brandt-Platz around the middle of the century, Carmelites had a monastery at today's Postplatz and in Poor Clares started one on St.

Many monasteries maintained trade posts in other cities; in Speyer alone there were 19 such posts, 12 of which belonged to various Cistercian abbeys.

The Speyer cathedral chapter Domkapitel, capitulum was an ecclesiastical corporate body of approximately 30 canons, or clergy ordained for religious duties in the church.

The chapter mainly assisted the bishop to govern the diocese, but formed a body distinct from him, with the authority to make its own statutes and regulations.

The chapter elected the bishop and ruled the diocese during episcopal vacancies. The chapter eventually became wholly aristocratic in composition and in the pope decreed that only members of the nobility or aristocracy were to be admitted.

The nobility of the city strove to have a family member in the chapter. The chapter owned property and appointed officials to administer its possessions which were not under the control of the bishop.

Henry III, who made several donations of property to the chapter in and , even specified with the first of these that the bishop was to be excluded from its administration.

Each capitular canon Domkapitular or Domherr, canonicus capitularis had the right to a prebend Pfründe or income and was required to reside near the cathedral church, unless granted leave.

Each canon had to perform his duties personally, including choir service. Head of the chapter was originally the cathedral provost Dompropst, praepositus , the highest dignitary after the bishop.

From the end of the 12th century, leadership passed to the cathedral dean Domdekan, decanus. The chapter was an important factor in the city's economy because it operated various administrative departments cellar, barn, granary, portal, factory, ornaments, and bakery , staffed by cathedral vicars Domvikare, vicarii who carried out their duties under the supervision of a capitular canon.

There were approximately seventy vicars associated with the Speyer cathedral. Three libraries were associated with the cathedral: the cathedral library, comprising liturgical books and books forming part of the cathedral treasure , such as the codex aureus, the palace library of the bishop as of c.

In August Speyer was occupied by troops of the margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. They plundered the cathedral and its associated buildings.

The margrave had in mind to hand the books to his stepfather and had them brought to the nearby house of the Deutsche Orden.

But the books were saved for the library owing to the hurried departure of the troops on 24 August. All the known and extant copies of the Notitia Dignitatum , a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries and one of the very few surviving documents of Roman government, are derived, either directly or indirectly, from the Codex Spirensis which is known to have existed in the library of the cathedral chapter.

The codex contained a collection of documents of which the Notitia was the last and largest document, occupying pages that brought together several previous documents of which one was of the 9th century.

It is last attested in the available documents in — The second half of the 13th century was characterised by the fierce disputes between city and bishop and, most of all, between city and the ecclesiastical endowments.

The disputes were yet intensified by the Investiture Controversy. The four Speyer collegiate endowments Cathedral Chapter, St. Germain, Weiden Stift and Trinity Stift were a major unified force in the city representing all the priests as ecclesiae Spirenses and vying with the bishop and the city for power.

They didn't even shrink from adulterating their own history to achieve their aims which were not always the same as the bishop's.

Especially the cathedral chapter evolved into the actual adversary of the Speyer citizenry. There were frequent threats against each other, economic sanctions, punitive and counter measures concerning taxes and revenues.

The church neither wanted to forego revenues nor pay dues to the city. In turn, the citizenry refused payments to the church. Bishop Beringer of Entringen, for example, threatened to excommunicate those citizens that did not fulfill their interest payments to the Speyer canons.

The power struggle between the pope and the emperor added to the heat of this conflict. The citizenry always sided with the emperor while the clergy took sides with the pope.

Emperor and pope rewarded their followers with privileges. Thus, in , Frederick II returned the Speyerbach to the city and permission for the fall fair in must be seen in that light.

In and , the popes Gregory IX and Innocent confirmed estates in Heiligenstein and Deidesheim and extensive rights for the cathedral chapter.

On July 30, , Pope Innocent even took people and estates of the cathedral under his special protection. At this, Frederick II ordered the expulsion of the clergy from Speyer.

It is not known whether this order was executed. A time of uncertainty and insecurity followed after Pope Innocent deposed Frederick II in and especially after the death of Frederick II and of his successor, Conrad IV in Interregnum , lasting until Rudolf I of Germany was elected in In July , Speyer and 58 other cities created the Rhenish League of Cities and Princes which proclaimed a general Landfrieden for 10 years.

The cities also signed an agreement about taxes. This league put the cities in a position to demand the confirmation of privileges from the king and or pope for conduct in their favour.

This was the case with William II of Holland in and and Richard of Cornwall in Yet, the alliance dissolved again in In , Speyer arranged with Worms to acknowledge the ambivalent election of Alfonso X of Castile instead of Richard of Cornwall.

Should Alfonso not accept the election, Speyer and Worms would vote for another king. In the eyes of the collegiate endowments, it was the bishops' leniency towards the city that caused the erosion of church power in the city.

This leniency was vehemently opposed, especially by the cathedral chapter which felt impaired by the octroi levied by the city.

Bishop Henry of Leiningen had yielded to the city the right to collect octroi on wine for 5 years. In return, the city council abstained from the free election of the council which had been conceded to it long ago.

Yet, for the collegiate endowments this concession by the bishop went too far and in they formed an alliance against this agreement.

The occasion was that citizens of Speyer allegedly destroyed buildings and plantations of the endowment clergy and that the church felt exposed to harassment.

As a counter measure they decided that neither council members, other citizens or their relatives down to the fourth generation would be allowed to become canons or friars of the Speyer church or to receive benefices.

The octroi still would not be paid. Not only the endowment clergy but also the episcopalian court house, citizens and Jews were subject to violence.

This revolt constituted the first open and serious resistance of at least a part of the citizenry against the bishop and the clergy.

The leaders with their families and backers were banished from the city in December and found refuge with the Count of Leiningen.

Yet, the tension between clergy and citizenry continued. Without success he advocated the restitution of the rebels which had been banished from the city.

Under the reign of Rudolf, Speyer served as an example for city foundations and elevations of city statuses, e.

Neutstadt , Germersheim , Heilbronn or Godramstein With Otto of Bruchsal, provost of St. Guido, clergyman from Speyer became court chancellor of the king.

In , the city chamberlain tried to bring the cathedral clergy before a secular court. In turn, he was banished by the church, yet without consequences, as he remained a member of the city council.

In the meantime there were quarrels not only about the octroi but about wine serving and dues on the export of grain. As the church continued to refuse any payments the city decreed a ban on exports.

On Good Friday in , cathedral deacon Albert of Mussbach was murdered. The perpetrator s were never caught and possibly even covered by the city.

The pope demanded the investigation of the complaints by the church of Speyer and the city expanded its measures against the clergy.

The citizens were forbidden to buy wine from the church. Bakers were not allowed to grind their grain in mills owned by the church.

In addition, the city began construction of 2 towers by the cathedral and next to the houses of the endowment clergy.

In , the endowments complained to the pope that the city demanded payment of a buying and sales tax, that it forbade its citizens to buy wine in their buildings and that it banned the export of wine and grain for the purpose of avoiding the market and sales taxes.

On April 13, , the bishop felt impelled to yield.

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